Late 1950s dating habits

Management systems for yak predominantly follow a traditional pattern dictated by the climate and seasons, by the topography of the land and by social and cultural influences.Methods of keeping the yak vary from the primitive, where herds are allowed to roam virtually at will, to the technologically advanced.In general, a transhumance form of management predominates.

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This gives way in winter and early spring to the grazing of winter pastures at lower elevations that are nearer to the more permanent winter abodes and villages of the herders and their families.The summer grazings are much the more extensive of the two.Until fairly recent years, the predominant practice in China was for all yak from several families in one or more than one village to be pooled for purposes of management but subdivided into four groups: lactating cows, dry cows, replacement stock and steers (pack yak).Since the implementation in China of the "Household Responsibility" system, which includes leasing parcels of land to the herders and private ownership of the animals, the herd of each family is rarely subdivided, although the adult females are likely to be managed separately from the rest of the animals.Some pooling of resources among small family groups may still occur.

The proportions of each type of yak in the herd, the herd structure, can profoundly affect the output of milk and meat from the herd.Grazing traditions rely on accumulated experience including knowledge of the particular properties of different types of pasture vegetation.Over-grazing has become a recognized problem, especially on the winter pastures, because an increase in the yak population has occurred, at least in several of the provinces with yak in China.This increase is due, in part, to official encouragement of extra food production and in part to the fact that many herders, perhaps most, still equate numbers of animals with wealth and status, irrespective of the intrinsic merit of the animals or their productivity.To assist in the management of yak, there is a small range of fixtures, mainly at the winter quarters, in the form of pens and enclosures usually made of mud, turf or faeces.Wood, because of its scarcity, is used sparingly in the plateau areas.